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Cell and Membrane Practice Quiz



Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

 1. 

All of the following are part of a prokaryotic cell except
a.
DNA.
b.
a cell wall.
c.
a plasma membrane.
d.
ribosomes.
e.
an endoplasmic reticulum.
 

 2. 

Which of the following is a major cause of the size limits for certain types of cells?
a.
limitation on the strength and integrity of the plasma membrane as cell size increases
b.
the difference in plasma membranes between prokaryotes and eukaryotes
c.
evolutionary progression in cell size; more primitive cells have smaller sizes
d.
the need for sufficient surface area to support the cell's metabolic needs
e.
rigid cell walls that limit cell size expansion
 

 3. 

Large numbers of ribosomes are present in cells that specialize in producing which of the following molecules?
a.
lipids
b.
glycogen
c.
proteins
d.
cellulose
e.
nucleic acids
 

 4. 

The Golgi apparatus has a polarity or sidedness to its structure and function. Which of the following statements correctly describes this polarity?
a.
Transport vesicles fuse with one side of the Golgi and leave from the opposite side.
b.
Proteins in the membrane of the Golgi may be sorted and modified as they move from one side of the Golgi to the other.
c.
Lipids in the membrane of the Golgi may be sorted and modified as they move from one side of the Golgi to the other.
d.
Soluble proteins in the cisternae (interior) of the Golgi may be sorted and modified as they move from one side of the Golgi to the other.
e.
All of the above correctly describe polar characteristics of the Golgi function.
 

 5. 

The chemical reactions involved in respiration are virtually identical between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. In eukaryotic cells, ATP is synthesized primarily on the inner membrane of the mitochondria. In light of the endosymbiont theory for the evolutionary origin of mitochondria, where is most ATP synthesis likely to occur in prokaryotic cells?
a.
in the cytoplasm
b.
on the inner mitochondrial membrane
c.
on the endoplasmic reticulum
d.
on the plasma membrane
e.
on the inner nuclear envelope
 

 6. 

A biologist ground up some plant leaf cells and then centrifuged the mixture to fractionate the organelles. Organelles in one of the heavier fractions could produce ATP in the light, whereas organelles in the lighter fraction could produce ATP in the dark. The heavier and lighter fractions are most likely to contain, respectively,
a.
mitochondria and chloroplasts.
b.
chloroplasts and peroxisomes.
c.
peroxisomes and chloroplasts.
d.
chloroplasts and mitochondria.
e.
mitochondria and peroxisomes.
 
 
End-of-Chapter Questions
 

 7. 

What is the most likely pathway taken by a newly synthesized protein that will be secreted by a cell?
a.
ER Golgi nucleus
b.
Golgi ER lysosome
c.
nucleus ER Golgi
d.
ER Golgi vesicles that fuse with plasma membrane
e.
ER lysosomes vesicles that fuse with plasma membrane
 

 8. 

Based on the figure given below, which of these experimental treatments would increase the rate of sucrose transport into the cell?
mc008-1.jpg
a.
decreasing extracellular sucrose concentration
b.
decreasing extracellular pH
c.
decreasing cytoplasmic pH
d.
adding an inhibitor that blocks regeneration of ATP
e.
adding a substance that makes the membrane more permeable to hydrogen ions
 

 9. 

The presence of cholesterol in the plasma membranes of some animals
a.
enables the membrane to stay fluid more easily when cell temperature drops.
b.
enables the animal to remove hydrogen atoms from saturated phospholipids.
c.
enables the animal to add hydrogen atoms to unsaturated phospholipids.
d.
makes the membrane less flexible, allowing it to sustain greater pressure from within the cell.
e.
makes the animal more susceptible to circulatory disorders.
 

 10. 

Which of the following is a reasonable explanation for why unsaturated fatty acids help keep any membrane more fluid at lower temperatures?
a.
The double bonds form kinks in the fatty acid tails, preventing adjacent lipids from packing tightly.
b.
Unsaturated fatty acids have a higher cholesterol content and therefore more cholesterol in their membranes.
c.
Unsaturated fatty acids are more polar than saturated fatty acids.
d.
The double bonds block interaction among the hydrophilic head groups of the lipids.
e.
The double bonds result in shorter fatty acid tails and thinner membranes.
 

 11. 

Which of the following statements is correct about diffusion?
a.
It is very rapid over long distances.
b.
It requires an expenditure of energy by the cell.
c.
It is a passive process in which molecules move from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration.
d.
It is an active process in which molecules move from a region of lower concentration to one of higher concentration.
e.
It requires integral proteins in the cell membrane.
 

 12. 

Celery stalks that are immersed in fresh water for several hours become stiff and hard. Similar stalks left in a 0.15 M salt solution become limp and soft. From this we can deduce that
a.
the fresh water and the salt solution are both hypertonic to the cells of the celery stalks.
b.
the fresh water and the salt solution are both hypotonic to the cells of the celery stalks.
c.
the fresh water is hypotonic and the salt solution is hypertonic to the cells of the celery stalks.
d.
the fresh water is hypertonic and the salt solution is hypotonic to the cells of the celery stalks.
e.
the fresh water is isotonic and the salt solution is hypertonic to the cells of the celery stalks.
 

 13. 

Glucose diffuses slowly through artificial phospholipid bilayers. The cells lining the small intestine, however, rapidly move large quantities of glucose from the glucose-rich food into their glucose-poor cytoplasm. Using this information, which transport mechanism is most probably functioning in the intestinal cells?
a.
simple diffusion
b.
phagocytosis
c.
active transport pumps
d.
exocytosis
e.
facilitated diffusion
 

 14. 

Which of the following membrane activities requires energy from ATP hydrolysis?
a.
facilitated diffusion of chloride ions across the membrane through a chloride channel
b.
movement of water into a cell
c.
movement of Na+ ions from a lower concentration in a mammalian cell to a higher concentration in the extracellular fluid
d.
movement of glucose molecules into a bacterial cell from a medium containing a higher concentration of glucose than inside the cell
e.
movement of carbon dioxide out of a paramecium
 

 15. 

The difference between pinocytosis and receptor-mediated endocytosis is that
a.
pinocytosis brings only water molecules into the cell, but receptor-mediated endocytosis brings in other molecules as well.
b.
pinocytosis increases the surface area of the plasma membrane, whereas receptor-mediated endocytosis decreases the plasma membrane surface area.
c.
pinocytosis is nonselective in the molecules it brings into the cell, whereas receptor-mediated endocytosis offers more selectivity.
d.
pinocytosis requires cellular energy, but receptor-mediated endocytosis does not.
e.
pinocytosis can concentrate substances from the extracellular fluid, but receptor-mediated endocytosis cannot.
 
 
nar002-1.jpg

Figure 5.3

The solutions in the arms of a U-tube are separated at the bottom of the tube by a selectively permeable membrane. The membrane is permeable to sodium chloride but not to glucose. Side A is filled with a solution of 0.4 M glucose and 0.5 M sodium chloride (NaCl), and side B is filled with a solution containing 0.8 M glucose and 0.4 M sodium chloride. Initially, the volume in both arms is the same. Refer to the figure to answer the following questions.
 

 16. 

If you examine side A after three days, you should find
a.
a decrease in the concentration of NaCl and glucose and an increase in the water level.
b.
a decrease in the concentration of NaCl, an increase in water level, and no change in the concentration of glucose.
c.
no net change in the system.
d.
a decrease in the concentration of NaCl and a decrease in the water level.
e.
no change in the concentration of NaCl and glucose and an increase in the water level.
 
 
nar003-1.jpg
Figure 5.4

Five dialysis bags, constructed from a semipermeable membrane that is impermeable to sucrose, were filled with various concentrations of sucrose and then placed in separate beakers containing an initial concentration of 0.6 M sucrose solution. At 10-minute intervals, the bags were massed (weighed) and the percent change in mass of each bag was graphed.
 

 17. 

Which line in the graph represents the bag with the highest initial concentration of sucrose?
a.
A
b.
B
c.
C
d.
D
e.
E
 

 18. 

You are working on a team that is designing a new drug. In order for this drug to work, it must enter the cytoplasm of specific target cells. Which of the following would be a factor that determines whether the molecule selectively enters the target cells?
a.
blood or tissue type of the patient
b.
hydrophobicity of the drug molecule
c.
lack of charge on the drug molecule
d.
similarity of the drug molecule to other molecules transported by the target cells
e.
lipid composition of the target cells' plasma membrane
 

 19. 

A patient has had a serious accident and lost a lot of blood. In an attempt to replenish body fluids, distilled water–equal to the volume of blood lost–is transferred directly into one of his veins. What will be the most probable result of this transfusion?
a.
It will have no unfavorable effect as long as the water is free of viruses and bacteria.
b.
The patient's red blood cells will shrivel up because the blood fluid has become hypotonic compared to the cells.
c.
The patient's red blood cells will swell because the blood fluid has become hypotonic compared to the cells.
d.
The patient's red blood cells will shrivel up because the blood fluid has become hypertonic compared to the cells.
e.
The patient's red blood cells will burst because the blood fluid has become hypertonic compared to the cells.
 
 
Use this description to answer the following question.

A major group of G-protein-coupled receptors contains seven transmembrane
α helices. The amino end of the protein lies at the exterior of the plasma membrane. Loops of amino acids connect the helices either at the exterior face or on the cytosol face of the membrane. The loop on the cytosol side between helices 5 and 6 is usually substantially longer than the others.
 

 20. 

If an animal cell suddenly lost the ability to produce GTP, what might happen to its signaling system?
a.
It would not be able to activate and inactivate the G protein on the cytoplasmic side of the plasma membrane.
b.
It could activate only the epinephrine system.
c.
It would be able to carry out reception and transduction but would not be able to respond to a signal.
d.
It would use ATP instead of GTP to activate and inactivate the G protein on the cytoplasmic side of the plasma membrane.
e.
It would employ a transduction pathway directly from an external messenger.
 



 
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