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Marine Bio Final

Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

 1. 

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The unique pattern of orange, blue, and white colors on this fish is called
a.
counter shading
c.
bioluminescence
b.
disruptive coloration
d.
false coloration
 

 2. 

All of the following are true for IFQ’s (individual fish quota’s) except:
a.
it limits the total number of pounds any permitted fishermen can take
c.
it limits the amount of hours a fisherman or fisherwoman can fish in a month
b.
in Alaska it is paired with limited entry to regulate halibut fisheries
d.
it has made fishing safer because fishermen can fish when they want
 

 3. 

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What is the most likely explanation for the drop in anchovy landings in the 1980’s.
a.
Prior to 1985 the fishery had not reached maximum sustainable yield
c.
The fishery was over fished in the late 70’s and early 80’s
b.
New predators moved into Northern California waters in the mid 1980’s
d.
The rivers that anchovy spawn in were dammed in 1983.
 

 4. 

Fresh water and salt water fish’s ____________ have to do very different jobs to maintain proper water balance.  Fresh water fish tend to ________ water, whereas saltwater fish tend to __________water.
a.
kidney’s/ gain/ lose
c.
livers/ gain/ lose
b.
kidney’s/ lose/ gain
d.
livers/ lose/ gain
 

 5. 

Which of the following sets is the LEAST closely related?
a.
shark & salmon
c.
goldfish & shark
b.
eel & sea snake
d.
shark & stingray
 

 6. 

Jawless fishes include
a.
dolphins and porpoises
b.
tuna and salmon
c.
hagfishes and lampreys
d.
sharks and rays
 

 7. 

This picture shows:

mc007-1.jpg
a.
trawl netting
c.
purse seining
b.
longlining
d.
gill netting
 

 8. 

These guys are...
mc008-1.jpg
a.
purse seining
c.
bottom trawling
b.
picking fish from a setnet
d.
pulling fish of a longline
 

 9. 

This type of non-bony fish eats...
mc009-1.jpg
a.
fish
c.
plankton
b.
sharks
d.
coral
 

 10. 

Sailfish, swordfish, and marlin primarily use their bills to
mc010-1.jpg
a.
slash at prey and bat them out of schools
c.
stab prey to kill them
b.
cut prey so they bleed to death
d.
enhance their echolocation
 

 11. 

mc011-1.jpg
The northern pike has a long tapered body with and concave head  Its pectoral and dorsal fins are small and pushed back towards the back of the fish.  Its caudal fin is large and forked.  It has a large mouth with sharp teeth.  This fishes niche is most likely
a.
an open ocean fish that pursues other fish with speed.
c.
a fish that floats in the shallows and waits for fish that it can outrun.  It appears at times lazy and at other times an aggressive predator.
b.
a fish that sits on the bottom and waits, and opportunistic feeder.
d.
a fish with a small mouth and stripped coloration that feeds on algae and plankton.
 

 12. 

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The yellowfin tuna has curved fusiform shaped body with a convex head  Its fins are stiff and thin.  Its caudal fin is huge and crescent shaped.  It has a large mouth with no obvious teeth.   Its top is dark and its bottom light.  This fishes niche is most likely
a.
an open ocean fish that pursues other fish with speed.
c.
a fish that floats in the shallows and waits for fish that it can outrun.  It appears at times lazy and at other times an aggressive predator.
b.
a fish that sits on the bottom and waits, and opportunistic feeder.
d.
a fish with a small mouth and stripped coloration that feeds on algae and plankton.
 

 13. 

mc013-1.jpg

Blue sharks, an open ocean predator, are noted for their large
a.
dorsal fins
c.
pectoral fins
b.
anal fins
d.
pelvic fins
 

 14. 

mc014-1.jpg
Like marine mammals, the largest species of sharks are
a.
predators
c.
broadcast spawners
b.
filter feeders
d.
bubble neters
 

 15. 

mc015-1.jpg

The overfishing of sharks is hurting coral reef habitat.  The connection between sharks and reefs is best summarized by which of the following statements.
a.
When shark numbers are reduced, there are increasing numbers of mid-level predators such as snappers and a reduction in the number of herbivores such as parrotfishes.  The parrotfishes are very important to coral reef health because they eat the algae that would otherwise overwhelm young corals.
c.
When shark numbers are reduced, there are reduced numbers of mid-level predators such as snappers and an increase in the number of herbivores such as parrotfishes.  The parrotfishes are very important to coral reef health because they eat the algae that would otherwise overwhelm young corals.
b.
Sharks actively scare away scuba divers who unintentionally damage coral reefs with their activities.  Less sharks means more scuba divers and more damage to corals.
d.
Shark feces is an important nutrient source to growing coral reefs.  Less sharks means less nutrients and less coral growth.
 

 16. 

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The Ampulae of Lorenzini are special sensing organs that enhance
a.
a shark’s ability to sense electrical fields in the water
c.
an ocean sunfish’s ability to detect blue light waves
b.
a salmon’s ability to navigate to its birth stream
d.
a shark’s ability to smell potential prey in the water
 

 17. 

mc017-1.jpg

In Alaska halibut are primarily caught by
a.
setnetting
c.
bottom trawling
b.
longlining
d.
purse seining
 

 18. 

mc018-1.jpg

In Alaska, schooling fish like herring and pink salmon are primarily caught by
a.
setnetting
c.
bottom trawling
b.
longlining
d.
purse seining
 

 19. 

mc019-1.jpg

How do we best explain the connection between salmon and trees
a.
bears eat salmon, bears leave salmon carcases and deposit bear feces, nutrients feed growing trees, trees shade salmon streams and filter water keeping them cool and clean
c.
trees send their roots deep into salmon stream beds, as salmon spawn and die, their carcases provide nutrients to growing trees and the trees in turn feed bears
b.
bears eat trees, bears deposit feces in salmon streams, the feces provides nutrients to growing salmon fry
d.
dead salmon carcases feed bears, bear feces provide nutrients to growing trees, trees provide nutrients to growing salmon fry
 

 20. 

mc020-1.jpg
Based on the data in this graph onc could surmise that...
a.
For the 20 year period between 1990 and 2010, the price per pound of Atlantic cod has decreased.
c.
For the 20 year period between 1990 and 2010, the amount of cod caught in the Atlantic provinces of Canada declined but the value increased.
b.
For the 20 year period between 1990 and 2010, both the amount of cod caught in the Atlantic provinces of Canada as well as the value of it’s catch increased.
d.
For the 20 year period between 1990 and 2010, both the amount of cod caught in the Atlantic provinces of Canada as well as the value of it’s catch declined.
 

 21. 

mc021-1.jpg
This puffin chick is covered in what kind of feathers
a.
downy
c.
contour
b.
powder
d.
broad
 
 
nar001-1.jpg

Changes brought by foxes on the Alutian Islands plant community
 

 22. 

Seabird guano is an important source of ______________________ for the islands in which they nest
a.
insect repellant
c.
weed killer
b.
nutrients for plants
d.
food for young chicks
 

 23. 

Alutian Islands with introduced foxes have seen their plant communities transition from
a.
tundra based ecosystems, to less productive grass based ecosystems.
c.
grass based ecosystems, to less productive lichen based ecosystems.
b.
forests to grasslands.
d.
tundra based lichen  ecosystems to spruce based forest ecosystems.
 

 24. 

mc024-1.jpg

Why would seabirds want to nest on such precarious cliffs
a.
easy access to food for chicks
c.
so that the chicks have an easier time when they take flight for the first time
b.
to avoid potential chick or egg predators
d.
just for the thrill of it
 

 25. 

Seabirds generally return to land for which of the following purposes?
a.
to rest
c.
to mate and lay eggs
b.
to eat
d.
to remove plastic debris from their guts
 

 26. 

The feeding strategy of a bird like a gannet, that dives from a great height into the water in order to catch is prey, is know as
a.
surface feeding
c.
diving
b.
plunging
d.
scavenging
 

 27. 

Which of the following feathers are used for flying?
a.
contour feathers
c.
powder feathers
b.
downy feathers
d.
broad feathers
 

 28. 

mc028-1.jpg
The best explanation for most sea bird coloration patterns is
a.
dark on top and light on bottom makes them attractive to potential mates
c.
the dark color makes them invisible to potential nest raiders
b.
dark on their dorsal side and light on the ventral side is called counter shading and it makes them less visible to potential prey
d.
The coloration pattern makes it hard for baleen whales to see them, making it easier for the Guillemots to avoid being eaten
 

 29. 

mc029-1.jpg
Many sea birds practice serial monogamy, meaning they are monogamous for one breeding season.  What is the biological advantage of such a practice.
a.
two parents are more adapt at fighting off predators than just one
c.
sitting on nest is not very exciting and sea birds depend upon a steady partner for companionship
b.
two parents are able to acquire more food for a developing chick than just one
d.
the chicks of sea birds raised by two parents are more likely to survive that chicks raised by just one
 

 30. 

mc030-1.jpg
A phylogeny of penguins shows
a.
how closely related species of penguin are to each other
c.
emperor penguins are most closely related to king penguins
b.
penguins are related to other birds but share one common ancestor
d.
all of the are true
 

 31. 

mc031-1.jpg
Emperor penguins are noted for their
a.
ability to slide on their bellie
c.
sexual selection
b.
long marches inland to give birth
d.
breeding the furthest north of all penguins
 

 32. 

mc032-1.jpg

Which of the following is the main way penguins stay warm in cold water
a.
thick blubber
c.
counter current exachange
b.
insulating feathers
d.
fur
 

 33. 

mc033-1.jpg

The above diagram explains how
a.
seabirds keep their feet warm under cold conditions
c.
seabirds change the color of the blood in their feed
b.
seabirds circulate blood to their extremities
d.
penguins are able to march such long distances
 

 34. 

mc034-1.jpgWhich of the following marine mammals commonly forages the deepest.
a.
sea otter
c.
elephant seal
b.
killer whale
d.
sperm whale
 

 35. 

Bowhead whales...
mc035-1.jpg
a.
winter in the Bering Sea and migrate north as summer approaches to the Cukchi and Buefort Sea.
c.
make the longest migrations of any baleen whales migrating from the Bering Sea to Baja Mexico.
b.
winter in the Arctic Ocean and migrate south into the Chukchi and Bering Sea.
d.
do not have predictable migration routes.
 

 36. 

mc036-1.jpg

The graph above shows the percent of oxygen stored in the blood, muscle, and lungs of three organisms.  In comparison with humans...
a.
elephant seals store a greater percentage of oxygen in their muscle
c.
elephant seals store a greater percentage of oxygen in their lungs
b.
emperor penguins store a greater percentage of oxygen in their lungs
d.
emperor penguins store a greater percentage of oxygen in their blood
 

 37. 

A group of whales, like those seen below, is called a...

mc037-1.jpg
a.
school.
c.
team.
b.
group.
d.
pod.
 

 38. 

Elephant seals are good canidates for time depth recorders because...

mc038-1.jpg
a.
their fur is very sticky and it is easy to adhear the tags to their heads.
c.
they are very passive and applying the tags is easy.
b.
they return to the same beach twice each year making the tags easy to recover.
d.
they are small, easy to handle animals.
 

 39. 

mc039-1.jpg

This skull is from a...
a.
manatee.
c.
baleen whale.
b.
toothed whale.
d.
sea otter.
 

 40. 

Walruses share which of the following characteristics with members of family Otaridae?
a.
the ability to walk on their hind flippers
c.
hind flippers that are not very useful for swimming
b.
external ears
d.
extreme sexual dimorphism
 

 41. 

mc041-1.jpg

Walrus tusks...
a.
are used to fight off other males.
c.
are mostly used for feeding.
b.
are only found on males.
d.
are modified wiskers.
 

 42. 

mc042-1.jpg

This image shows the physical differences between...
a.
otariidea and phocidea
c.
Odobenidae and otariidea
b.
seals and sea otters
d.
Odobenidae and phocidea
 

 43. 

mc043-1.jpg
Select the answer based on the data provided.  Since 1990, the population of elephant seal pups born at Piedras Blancas has...
a.
increasing rapidly in the 1990’s then declined.
c.
grown to a level that exceeds the ecosystems carrying capacity.
b.
slowly increased, rising to a level of nearly 5,000 pups born in 2013.
d.
falled to numbers that would qualify it for an endangered species listing.
 
 
The graph below shows a comparison between the diving profile of a Weddell seal and its heartrate while diving.
nar002-1.jpg
 

 44. 


Select the statement that best descirbes what happens to a Weddell seal’s heartrate as it dives
a.
As the seal dives, its heart rate increases and as it returns to the surface, its heart rate decreases.
c.
As the seal dives, its heart rate increases and as it returns to the surface, its heart rate increases.
b.
As the seal dives, its heart rate decreases and as it returns to the surface, its heart rate increases.
d.
As the seal dives, its heart rate decreases and as it returns to the surface, its heart rate decreases.
 

 45. 

Reduced heartrates help Weddell seals stay underwater longer by
a.
reducing the effects of pressure.
c.
reducing the amount of oxygen consumed while diving.
b.
allowing them to stay warm in colder waters.
d.
allowing it greater stregth and faster swimming speed.
 

 46. 

Which baleen whale gets its food by filtering invertebrates from the mud on the bottom of the Bering Sea?
mc046-1.jpg
a.
blue whales
c.
humpback whales
b.
fin whales
d.
grey whales
 

 47. 

The fossil record demonstrates that toothed whales most recently evolved from...
mc047-1.jpg
a.
fish.
c.
land dwelling predators.
b.
squid.
d.
sea otters.
 
 
The following graph was constructed by a student studying the diving behavior of Weddell Seals.
nar003-1.jpg
 

 48. 

Based on the graph for a diving Weddell Seal, it is most accurate to say...
a.
the seal takes one feeding diver per day
c.
it dives repeatedly for a period of time and then rests for a period of time
b.
its deepest dives exceeded 500 meters.
d.
during the week it spent more than half of its time at depth.
 

 49. 

Which of the following is not an ability or physical characteristic  of phocids that allows them to dive deeply?
a.
Their ability to hold their breath
c.
Their ability to slow their heartrate
b.
Their characteristic high myoglobin concentration in their muscles
d.
Their characteristic high blood volume
 

 50. 

mc050-1.jpg

Organisms that have a radula (toothed tongue) are also likely to have which of the following.
a.
stinging cells
c.
radial symmetry
b.
a muscular foot
d.
tube feet
 

 51. 

mc051-1.jpg
The classification of phylum porifera is based on the fact that sponges lack
a.
teeth
c.
symmetry
b.
mouths
d.
offspring
 

 52. 

mc052-1.jpg

This picture shows us coral polyps.  Pick the best description for what a coral polyps are.
a.
mollusca with feeding tentacles that grab their prey
c.
arthropods that use claws to pick apart food
b.
cnidarians with feeding tentacles that immobilize or kill prey using their nematocysts. 
d.
cnidarians that feed by eviscerating their stomachs and digesting food externally
 

 53. 

mc053-1.jpg

Also known as the “sea butterfly” or “sea angel” this organism is
a.
an annelid
c.
a mollusk
b.
a flatworm
d.
an arthropod
 

 54. 

mc054-1.jpg

The nautilus is one of the most primitive of the swimming mollusca.  In addition to its siphon
a.
it uses air trapped in its shell for buoyancy
c.
it uses its fins for swimming
b.
it uses its tentacles for swimming
d.
it uses body fats and oils for buoyancy
 

 55. 

mc055-1.jpg

Cone snails are pretty amazing.  Their talents include...
a.
catching fish with a poison harpoon.
c.
giving diseases to sea stars.
b.
using their siphon to “jet away” from predators.
d.
filter feeding over 100 gallons per hour.
 

 56. 

mc056-1.jpg
The phylogeny seen above was constructed by comparing COI mitochondrial DNA.  Based on the phylogeny which of the following statements is true
a.
the genus Conus is most closely related to the genus Pecten
c.
the genus Mitra is more closely related to the genus Conus than the genus Turris
b.
the members of genus Conus all share a common ancestor
d.
all cone snails are poisonous to human beings
 

 57. 

mc057-1.jpg

This is a seastar eating coral polyps.  Sea stars eat by
a.
sea stars eviscerate their stomach and digests their food externally
c.
sea stars have a sharp beak that they use to bit through hard structures
b.
sea stars enlarge the size of their mouths and engulf their food whole
d.
sea stars have a toothed tongue that they use to scrape off coral polyps
 

 58. 

mc058-1.jpg
Urchins have the capacity
a.
to eat sea otters
c.
poison whales
b.
swim quickly
d.
to dominate a kelp ecosystem creating urchin barrens
 

 59. 

mc059-1.jpg

This is a madreporite on a seastar, what is its function?
a.
It’s used for eating, like a mouth.
c.
It is a pincher and it grabs things.
b.
It’s used for scraping algae off of rough surfaces.
d.
It allows water to pass into and out of a seastars water vascular system.
 

 60. 

mc060-1.jpg

Seastars move by
a.
squeezing water through a siphon
c.
coordinating the movement of thousands of tube feet
b.
sliding along the bottom with a muscular foot
d.
swimming with a muscular bell
 

 61. 

mc061-1.jpg

These are lobster larvae.  All arthropod larvae are
a.
plankton
c.
medusa
b.
nekton
d.
polyps
 

 62. 

Select one of the physical features that can not be found in a dungeness crab
a.
an abdomen
c.
walking legs
b.
a thorax
d.
tentacles
 

 63. 

mc063-1.jpg

The hermit crab doesn’t make this shell, instead it finds it after its been abandoned by a
a.
jellyfish
c.
octopus
b.
gastropod
d.
sea urchin
 

 64. 

mc064-1.jpg
Examine the sonar image above.  Red show’s high density of plankton, blue show’s low density of plankton.  Select the statement that best describes the daily migration of plankton. 
a.
Plankton move up during the day to take advantage of the sunlight, and down to the depths at night.
c.
Plankton are completely spread out during the day and concentrate at 300 meters during the night.
b.
Plankton  move up to the surface at night and down to a depth of 500 meters during the day.
d.
Plankton are not able to swim and therefor do not move.
 

 65. 

mc065-1.jpg

The most abundant phytoplankton in both fresh and salt water are
a.
cocolithophores
c.
diatoms
b.
dinoflagelates
d.
copepods
 



 
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