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Marine Mammal Practice Test



Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

 1. 

Listen to the sound played by your teacher and identify the species that makes this sound.
a.
sperm whale
c.
spotted dolphin
b.
humpback whale
d.
blue whale
 

 2. 

Which of the following is not a way that baleen whales stay warm?
a.
fur
c.
high blood volume
b.
blubber
d.
low surface area to volume ratio
 

 3. 

Which of the following marine mammal can dive the deepest and stay underwater the longest?
a.
blue whales
c.
elephant seals
b.
walruses
d.
beluga whales
 

 4. 

Which baleen whale gets its food by filtering invertebrates from the mud on the bottom of the Bering Sea?
a.
blue whales
c.
humpback whales
b.
fin whales
d.
grey whales
 

 5. 

Which baleen whale works in teams to form “bubble nets” around fish?
a.
blue whales
c.
humpback whales
b.
fin whales
d.
grey whales
 

 6. 

Which toothed whale is considered to be a true top predator, even eating other whales?
a.
bottlenose dolphins
c.
killer whales
b.
beluga whales
d.
pacific white sided dolphins
 

 7. 

Which of the following is the most important adaptation the sperm whale aquire to achieve such remarkable depths while diving?
a.
an off centered blow hole
c.
large brain size
b.
the Spermaceti organ
d.
hick skin
 

 8. 

The “bends” is a condition that occurs when...
a.
a diver descends too quickly.
c.
too much nitrogen dissolves in the blood stream.
b.
bubbles of nitrogen get lodged in important blood vessels.
d.
a diver runs out of oxygen.
 

 9. 

Which of these is the name for a whale sticking its head out of the water, apparently in an effort to “look around?”
a.
bubble netting
c.
breaching
b.
tail slapping
d.
spy hopping
 

 10. 

Explain what is being demonstrated in this graph.  The bottom line is heart rate, the upper line is depth of a dive for an elephant seal.

mc010-1.jpg
a.
As the seal dives down its heart rate increases because of increased effort.
c.
As the seal dives down its heart rate increases because of the Bradycardia reflex.
b.
As the seal dives down its heart rate decreases because of decreased effort.
d.
As the seal dives down its heart rate decreases because of the Bradycardia reflex.
 

 11. 

The behavior seen in this picture would best be labeled as...

mc011-1.jpg
a.
breaching.
c.
bubble netting.
b.
spy hopping.
d.
tail slapping.
 

 12. 

A group of whales, like those seen below, is called a...

mc012-1.jpg
a.
school.
c.
team.
b.
group.
d.
pod.
 

 13. 


mc013-1.jpg

The sexual dimorphism visable in this picture is most characteristic of...
a.
cetaceans such as right whales.
c.
ottarids such as weddell seals.
b.
pinnipeds such as steller sea lions.
d.
ottarids such as fur seals.
 

 14. 

Which of the following marine mammals eats only plants?
a.
humpback whales
c.
dugongs
b.
manatees
d.
dugongs and manatees
 

 15. 

Elephant seals are good canidates for time depth recorders because...
a.
their fur is very sticky and it is easy to adhear the tags to their heads.
c.
they are very passive and applying the tags is easy.
b.
they return to the same beach twice each year making the tags easy to recover.
d.
they are small, easy to handle animals.
 

 16. 

Right whales are no longer hunted, but still suffer serious human caused mortality.  These deaths are primarliy the result of...
a.
ship collisions.
c.
noise in the marine environment.
b.
being tangled in fishing nets .
d.
A and B combine for the most right whale deaths
 

 17. 

Walruses share which of the following characteristics with members of family Otaridae?
a.
the ability to walk on their hind flippers
c.
hind flippers that are not very useful for swimming
b.
external ears
d.
extreme sexual dimorphism
 

 18. 

Walruses use their tusks to...
a.
stab polar bears.
c.
dig clams.
b.
pull themselves out onto ice flows.
d.
both b and c are correct.
 
 
nar001-1.jpg
 

 19. 

Based on the graph for a diving Weddell Seal, it is most accurate to say...
a.
its deepest and longest dives came earlier in the week.
c.
its deepest dives exceeded 500 meters.
b.
its deepest and longest dives came later in the week.
d.
during the week it spent more than half of its time at depth.
 

 20. 

Based on the graph for a diving behavior of Weddell seal, we can assume that Weddell Seals are diving to a deepest point that averages...
a.
400-420 meters.
c.
0-60 meters.
b.
300- 320 meters.
d.
480-500 meters.
 

 21. 

Bowhead whales are actively being studied in a partnership between Alaska Native elders and US Fish and Wildlife Sceience.  Which of the following is not one of their findings?
a.
Bowhead whales have several migrations that change with seasons.
c.
Bowheads follow the most available food sources.
b.
Bowheads take advantage of changing seasonal currents in their migrations.
d.
Bowhead whale populations are declining and highly endangered.
 

 22. 

Why do copepods and krill make such good food sources for large whales like blue, fin, and bowhead whales?
a.
Copepods and krill are big and nutrient rich.
c.
These whales are slow swimmers and are not able to catch fish.
b.
As measured in biomass, copepods and krill are the most abundant organisms in the ocean.
d.
These whales do not eat copepod and krill but rather filter food from the sediment in the Bering Sea.
 

 23. 

Bowhead whales are the oldest lived mamal on the planet and start reproducing late, as late as...
a.
20 months old.
c.
10 years old.
b.
2 years old.
d.
25 years old.
 

 24. 

Bowhead whales...
a.
winter in the Bering Sea and migrate north as summer approaches to the Cukchi and Buefort Sea.
c.
make the longest migrations of any baleen whales migrating from the Bering Sea to Baja Mexico.
b.
winter in the Arctic Ocean and migrate south into the Chukchi and Bering Sea.
d.
do not have predictable migration routes.
 

 25. 

Baleen length and texture varies from species to species amongst baleen whales.  Select the true statement below.
a.
Grey whales filter feed bottom sediments, and their baleen is long (up to 3 meters) and fine.
c.
Humpback whales feed on larger fish like herring and sandlance, and their baleen is long (up to 3 meters) and fine.
b.
Bowhead whales feed with mouths open filtering out small plankton from the water, and their baleen is long (up to 3 meters) and fine.
d.
Fin whales are gulpers, they gulp up schools of small fish or krill, and their baleen is long (up to 3 meters) and fine.
 

 26. 

mc026-1.jpg

Walrus tusks...
a.
are used to fight off other males.
c.
are mostly used for feeding.
b.
are only found on males.
d.
are modified wiskers.
 

 27. 

mc027-1.jpg

Sea lions propell themselves through the water using...
a.
their tail.
c.
the undulation of their body.
b.
their hind flippers.
d.
their front flippers.
 

 28. 

mc028-1.jpg

This skull is from a...
a.
manatee.
c.
baleen whale.
b.
toothed whale.
d.
sea otter.
 

 29. 

Sea otters are keystone predators. Which of the following is an example of this?
a.
In the marshes of Monterey Bay, sea otters eat crabs, and the resulting cascade of events keeps the marsh healthy.
c.
When sea otters are removed from kelp forests, urchins browse kelp to nothing, leaving urchin barrens.
b.
In Kodiak, sea otters keep urchin populations in check, which maintains healthy kelp forests.
d.
All of these are examples of sea otters as keystone species.
 

 30. 

Toothed whales most recently evolved from...
a.
fish.
c.
land dwelling predators.
b.
squid.
d.
sea otters.
 

 31. 

Whale poop is...
a.
really important to nutrient cycles in the ocean.
c.
often found on beaches in Alaska.
b.
important fish food.
d.
100% liquid.
 

 32. 

mc032-1.jpg
Time depth recorders and other sensors can be attached to whales with...
a.
glue.
c.
suction cups.
b.
large harnesses.
d.
magnets.
 

 33. 

Time depth recorders are attached to seals using...
a.
glue.
c.
suction cups.
b.
larger harnesses.
d.
magnets.
 

 34. 

Sea otters are unique amongst marine mammals because...
a.
they lack blubber to keep them warm.
c.
they sea invertebrates.
b.
they are the largest marine mammals.
d.
they have fingers like primates.
 

 35. 

Information on the diet of sea lions is obtained from analyzing scats. Otoliths (a crystalline structure within the ear organ) from fish and beaks from cephalopods are recovered from the samples by washing each sample through sieves of varying mesh size. Otoliths and beaks, which are shaped and sized differently for each species of fish and cephalopod, respectively, are used to identify and enumerate fish, and cephalopods consumed by sea lions. Also, otoliths and beaks are measured for estimating size of prey being consumed by sea lions. 

Many years of dietary analysis through sea lion scat have shown that Northern anchovy, Pacific sardine,  Pacific mackerel, and market squid  are the main prey of California sea lions in southern California. During a prolonged El Nino event, researchers found fewer otoliths and beaks from these species and overall a much greater diversity of different species’ otoliths and beaks as compared with samples taken during non- El Nino years.

What is a logical conclusion of this research.
a.
The diet of California sea lions becomes more nutrient poor during El Nino events and sea lion pups starve.
c.
El Nino events are triggered by changes in California sea lion diets.
b.
The diet of California sea lions becomes more variable during El Nino events due to decreased availability of their preferred prey.
d.
Market squid dominate the diets of California sea lions.
 

 36. 

mc036-1.jpg
Select the answer based on the data provided.  Since 1990, the population of elephant seal pups born at Piedras Blancas has...
a.
increasing rapidly in the 1990’s then declined.
c.
grown to a level that exceeds the ecosystems carrying capacity.
b.
slowly increased, rising to a level of nearly 5,000 pups born in 2013.
d.
falled to numbers that would qualify it for an endangered species listing.
 

 37. 

mc037-1.jpgWhich of the following marine mammals commonly forages the deepest.
a.
sea otter
c.
elephant seal
b.
killer whale
d.
sperm whale
 

 38. 

mc038-1.jpg
The graph above shows a comparison between the dive profile of a Weddell seal and its heart rate. Select the statement that best describes the relationship seen in the graph.
a.
As the seal dives, its heart rate increases and as it returns to the surface, its heart rate decreases.
c.
As the seal dives, its heart rate increases and as it returns to the surface, its heart rate increases.
b.
As the seal dives, its heart rate decreases and as it returns to the surface, its heart rate increases.
d.
As the seal dives, its heart rate decreases and as it returns to the surface, its heart rate decreases.
 

 39. 

mc039-1.jpg

The graph above shows the percent of oxygen stored in the blood, muscle, and lungs of three organisms.  In comparison with humans...
a.
elephant seals store a greater percentage of oxygen in their muscle
c.
elephant seals store a greater percentage of oxygen in their lungs
b.
emperor penguins store a greater percentage of oxygen in their lungs
d.
emperor penguins store a greater percentage of oxygen in their blood
 

 40. 

mc040-1.jpg

This image shows the physical differences between...
a.
otariidea and phocidea
c.
Odobenidae and otariidea
b.
seals and sea otters
d.
Odobenidae and phocidea
 

Matching
 
 
Match the group of marine mammals to the adaptation.
a.
obidentidae
e.
odontoceti
b.
phocidae
f.
ursidea
c.
otaridea
g.
mustelindea
d.
mysticeti
 

 41. 

hunts seals through the ice
 

 42. 

males often have large harems for breeding purposes
 

 43. 

very social, tight family groups
 

 44. 

locate prey with echolocation
 

 45. 

the largest organisms on Earth
 

 46. 

large tusks
 

 47. 

thick fur, with hollow hair shafts
 

 48. 

may use stones to help break open its hard-shelled food
 
 
Label the following characteristics as mysticeti or odontoceti.
a.
mysticeti
b.
odontoceti
 

 49. 

concave skull
 

 50. 

convex skull
 

 51. 

teeth
 

 52. 

reproductive “songs”
 

 53. 

more solitary lifestyle
 

 54. 

clicks for communication
 
 
Label each characteristic as either phocidea, obidentidea, or otaridea.
a.
phocidae
c.
otaridea
b.
obidentidea
 

 55. 

“flys’ through the water using its two front flippers
 

 56. 

walks on back two feet while on land
 

 57. 

digs for clams and other invertebrates
 

 58. 

most species breed on ice
 

 59. 

large tusks
 

 60. 

ring seal
 

 61. 

Stellar Sea Lion
 

 62. 

walrus
 
 
Label the following structures on the skull.

grp004-1.jpg
 

 63. 

where the  killer whale “hears” its echolocation
 

 64. 

where the melon would be located
 

 65. 

where the killer whale takes a breath
 
 
Match the diving adaptation to the diving problem.
a.
muscular efficient lungs
d.
Typical oxygen concentration levels in human blood is 15 ml/kg, where as Weddell Seals can have 60 ml/kg.
b.
diving marine mammals typically have thick blubber layers.
e.
Most marine mammals have no external (or air filled) ears.
c.
retia mirabilia
 

 66. 

pressure
 

 67. 

the bends
 

 68. 

oxygen storage
 

 69. 

cold at depth
 

 70. 

short periods of time at the surface for recovery
 



 
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