Name: 
 

Penguins, Seabirds, Reptiles



True/False
Indicate whether the statement is true or false.
 

 1. 

Marine iguanas can stand to feed in cold ocean water because their dark coloration allows them to warm up quickly while basking in the sun.
 

 2. 

Seabirds are endotherms, while most sea reptiles are ectotherms.
 

 3. 

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Many seabirds can remove salt through a gland above their beak
 

Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

 4. 

Seabirds have hearts with
a.
two chambers
c.
four chambers
b.
three chambers
d.
five chambers
 

 5. 

Which of the following is a big threat to sea bird populations in the Pacific
a.
egg hunters
d.
rats, cats, and foxes
b.
nuclear disasters
e.
both C and D
c.
plastic pollution
 

 6. 

The bones of sea birds are
a.
dense
c.
weak
b.
heavy
d.
hollow
 

 7. 

Which of the following feathers are used for flying
a.
contour feathers
c.
powder feathers
b.
downy feathers
d.
broad feathers
 

 8. 

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This puffin chick is covered in what kind of feathers
a.
downy
c.
contour
b.
powder
d.
broad
 
 
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Sea birds like to nest in hard to reach locations and steep cliffs.
 

 9. 

Nesting on such precarious cliffs helps seabirds
a.
easy access to food for chicks
c.
so that the chicks have an easier time when they take flight for the first time
b.
to avoid potential chick or egg predators
d.
just for the thrill of it
 

 10. 

An island community, that has recently had invasive rats removed from the island wants to set up a biosecurity plan to protect their nesting seabirds from further invasions.  Their plan should incorporate all of the following except
a.
education of the local population
c.
inspection of incoming vessels
b.
eradication of all human introduced species including
d.
using traps to biomonitor for new invasions of rats
 

 11. 

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The best explanation for most sea bird coloration patterns is
a.
dark on top and light on bottom makes them attractive to potential mates
c.
the dark color makes them invisible to potential nest raiders
b.
dark on their dorsal side and light on the ventral side is called counter shading and it makes them less visible to potential prey
d.
The coloration pattern makes it hard for baleen whales to see them, making it easier for the Guillemots to avoid being eaten
 

 12. 

Which of the following objects would be most likely to end up in the gut of a Laysaan Albatross?
a.
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bright colored plastic bottle caps
c.
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a clear plastic bottle
b.
mc012-2.jpgwhite dice
d.
mc012-4.jpga black plastic fork
 

 13. 

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Emperor penguins are noted for their
a.
ability to slide on their belly
c.
sexual selection
b.
long marches inland to give birth
d.
breeding the furthest north of all penguins
 

 14. 

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Select the true statement about sea bird nesting.
a.
Sea birds like to nest in areas with high predator density.
c.
Sea birds typically lay only one egg and both parents care for the chick
b.
Sea birds lay large clutches (lots of eggs.)
d.
Most sea birds make elaborate and complex nests
 

 15. 

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Penguins are birds, and as such have ________.  These act not to help them fly but to help keep them warm in cold conditions.
a.
thick blubber
c.
counter current exchange systems
b.
insulating feathers
d.
fur
 

 16. 

From the standpoint of an emperor penguin, what is the advantage of this site for breeding.  The black dots are penguins.

mc016-1.jpg
a.
The locked icebergs provide shelter from the wind.
c.
The ice below the penguins is thicker.  It will not melt until the chicks are ready to hatch.
b.
So far away from the ocean, this site provides great protection from predators
d.
all of the above
 

 17. 

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The graph, above, shows the trend of Adélie Penguin colonies at the northern tip of the west coast of the Antarctic Peninsula (data from Bill Fraser in Ducklow et al. 2007). It is located at the extreme northern (warm) edge of where this species occurs on Earth. The air temperature in this area has been warming rapidly (several degrees in the last 50 years), resulting in sea ice failing to form during an increasing number of winters, as well as increased snow fall (and rain).  As a result of these changes, what is happening to the three penguin populations
a.
The number of breeding pairs at all three locations is in decline.
c.
Penguins at all three sites are living longer
b.
The numbers of breeding pairs at two, but not the third of the three sites is in decline.
d.
Penguins at all three sites are suffering higher predation.
 

 18. 

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During which stage of this cycle do emperor penguin males suffer the highest mortality...
a.
during the original march from the sea in April.
c.
during the first return to the sea in September.
b.
while incubating eggs in June.
d.
during the coldest months in December.
 
 
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 19. 


Which of the following is a true statement based on the graph
a.
The population of all birds represented is in decline
c.
Food availability in the area is changing
b.
The population of all birds represented are increasing
d.
The bird populations of Chisik Island are in decline which those of Gull Island are increasing
 

 20. 

The most likely explanation for the population changes observed in the graph is
a.
Rats were recently introduced on Gull Island
c.
Foxes were recently exterminated from Chisnik Island
b.
Food has become more available for birds nesting on Gull Island
d.
Food has become more available for birds nesting on Chisnik Island
 

 21. 

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This Guillemot is cleaning its partners feathers.  This behavior is called.
a.
Nesting
c.
Preening
b.
Feathering
d.
Picking
 

 22. 

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Many sea birds practice serial monogamy, meaning they are monogamous for one breeding season.  What is the biological advantage of such a practice.
a.
two parents are more adapt at fighting off predators than just one
c.
sitting on nest is not very exciting and sea birds depend upon a steady partner for companionship
b.
two parents are able to acquire more food for a developing chick than just one
d.
the chicks of sea birds raised by two parents are more likely to survive that chicks raised by just one
 

 23. 

According to this phylogenic tree, gentoo penguins are most closely related to

mc023-1.jpg
a.
adeliae penguins
c.
emperor penguins
b.
chinstrap penguins
d.
macaroni penguins
 

 24. 

During the penguin phylogeny lab, we used the gene for cytochrome-b in order to make comparisons of the evolutionary relationships amongst penguins.  This gene was useful because
a.
its a very rare gene, few species besides penguins have the protein cytochrome-b
c.
cytochrome-b is critical to penguins ability to withstand the cold
b.
cytochrome-b does not change
d.
the gene for cytochrome-b is mitochondrial dna, which means any changes are due to random mutations that have accumulated over time
 
 
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Changes brought by foxes on the Aleutian Islands plant community
 

 25. 

Seabird guano is an important source of ______________________ for the islands in which they nest
a.
insect repellant
c.
weed killer
b.
nutrients for plants
d.
food for young chicks
 

 26. 

Aleutian Islands with introduced foxes have seen their plant communities transition from
a.
tundra based ecosystems, to less productive grass based ecosystems.
c.
grass based ecosystems, to less productive lichen based ecosystems.
b.
forests to grasslands.
d.
tundra based lichen  ecosystems to spruce based forest ecosystems.
 
 
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Rhinoceros Auklets nest in burrows, raising a single chick in a narrow tunnel that's up to fifteen feet deep. Adults may spend the entire day at sea foraging for small fish, such as sandlance and herring. To avoid predators, adults return to their burrow only at night, under the cover of darkness, to feed the chick. Both adults bring beak fulls of fish, usually around five fish per adult. Scientists are monitoring the type, number, and food value of the fish the adults provide.
 

 27. 

The Rhinoceros Auklet’s of British Colombia have been useful to scientists.
a.
Scientists have attached satellite trackers and found that their long migrations have set records for distance.
c.
Scientists are interested in how they can hold so many fish in their beaks at one time.
b.
They have been useful to scientists interested in studying how plastic pollution moves up the food chain.
d.
Because of their non-migratory lifestyle they are useful to scientists as an indicator species of overall ecosystem health.
 

 28. 

Rhinoceros Auklets like puffins and penguins are
a.
pursuit divers
c.
plungers
b.
scavengers
d.
plankton feeders
 

 29. 

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The above diagram explains how
a.
seabirds keep their feet warm under cold conditions
c.
seabirds change the color of the blood in their feed
b.
seabirds circulate blood to their extremities
d.
penguins are able to march such long distances
 

 30. 

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The most endangered species of penguin is the
a.
emperor penguin
c.
yellow-eyed
b.
king penguin
d.
gentoo penguin
 

 31. 

Which of the following it true about marine iguanas?
a.
they reside over many islands in the Pacific Ocean
c.
they reproduce in the water
b.
they have few if any connections to land
d.
they eat mostly algae
 

 32. 

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An easy way to tell the difference between sea snakes and eels is that
a.
eels have gills and sea snakes do not
c.
eels lay their eggs in water and sea snakes lay their eggs on land
b.
eels swim and sea snakes don’t
d.
sea snakes are poisonous and eels are not
 

 33. 

Leatherback sea turtles are sometimes calls to as gigantotherms.  This refers to...
a.
their large size which allows them to swim more efficiently.
c.
their large size which allows the females to produce an extraordinary number of eggs.
b.
their large size which allows them to keep their body temperature up to 32 degrees warmer than the surrounding water.
d.
their small size which makes them light weight, easily tossed about in rough storms and strong waves.
 

 34. 

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Penguins are
a.
found in the arctic
c.
pursuit divers
b.
preyed upon by polar bears
d.
all of these are true
 

 35. 

Seabirds have hearts with
a.
two chambers
c.
four chambers
b.
three chambers
d.
five chambers
 

 36. 

The feeding strategy of a bird like a gannet, that dives from a great height into the water in order to catch is prey, is know as
a.
surface feeding
c.
diving
b.
plunging
d.
scavenging
 

 37. 

Which of the following limits marine reptiles success as marine species
a.
they can’t hold their breath very long
c.
they lay eggs on land
b.
they are warm blooded
d.
they have thick layers of blubber for insulation
 

 38. 

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The graph above represents the proportions of hatchlings of certain types of reptiles that are male at different egg incubation temperatures. Which of the following claims is best supported by the data?
a.
The expression of sex-determination genes in certain reptiles is influenced by temperature.
c.
In reptiles, sex determination is influenced by the sex ratio of the existing population.
b.
Green turtle eggs do not hatch at temperatures above 35˚C.
d.
Incubating lizard eggs at constant low temperatures produces a large proportion of males.
 

 39. 

The largest species of penguins are
a.
Emperor
c.
Macaroni
b.
King
d.
Gentoo
 

Multiple Response
Identify one or more choices that best complete the statement or answer the question.
 

 40. 

A precocial species is able to move and feed itself from birth.  Select all of the following organisms that have young that are precocial. 
 a.
loggerhead sea turtles
 c.
laysan albatross
 b.
marine iguanas
 d.
emeror penguins
 

Matching (for this section, I will show you some videos)
 
 
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Match the type of pollution to the birds and reptiles most vulnerable to it
a.
bright colored plastic bottle caps
d.
small plastic bits found in the bellies of fish
b.
clear plastic bags
e.
pink, yellow, and organge cigarette lighters
c.
surface oil
 

 41. 

nesting penguins
 

 42. 

jellyfish eating sea turtles
 

 43. 

pursuit diving fish eaters
 

 44. 

squid eating sea birds
 

 45. 

surface feeding birds
 



 
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