Chapter 12: Estuaries

What is an estuary?

Mt. Susitna and the upper reaches of Cook Inlet’s Knik Arm. Image from Wikipedia Commons

An estuary is a partially enclosed body of water, and its surrounding coastal habitats, where saltwater from the ocean mixes with fresh water from rivers or streams. The picture to the right shows Knik Arm at the northern most reaches of Cook Inlet.  Here fresh water from the Knik River mixes with salt water coming in from lower Cook Inlet and the Gulf of Alaska.

Types of Estuaries

Estuaries can be classified by the geological features that create them.

  • Coastal Plains:  When glaciers receded after the last ice age and sea level rose, seawater penetrated river valleys.   Chesapeake Bay, MD is a great example of a coastal plain estuary.
  • Tectonic:  Significant tectonic movements can lead to the formation of a large depression or basin. As sea water floods in it will meet up with inflowing streams forming an estuary.  San Francisco Bay, CA, is a great example of a tectonic estuary.
  • Bar Built – Bar-built estuaries are formed by the accumulation of sediment around the mouth of a river. They can occur when sandbars or barrier islands are built up by ocean waves or by the deposition of river sediment at the mouth of the river. Pamlico Sound, NC is a great example of a bar built estuary.
  • Fjord – Head south from Anchorage and in about two hours you will find yourself in the town of Seward, the gateway to Resurrection Bay, AK.  Resurrection Bay is a classic fjord.  The Bay is long and narrow with deep walls that have been cut out by the advancement of Glaciers.  The water is significantly deeper (almost 1,000 feet) than the surrounding continental shelf.

Estuaries can also be classified by how fresh and salt water mix in the estuary.

  • Salt wedge – found at mouths of large rivers (e.g., Mississippi), the large fresh water influx “holds back” salt water at depth creating a salt wedge, little fresh and salt water mixing
  • Partially Mixed – deeper than well mixed, more shallow than Fjord, good fresh and salt water mixing, salinity changes both horizontally and vertically, big tidal influence
  • Vertically Mixed – typically shallow with strong tidal influx of salt water, extensive mixing of salt and fresh water, uniform salinity from top to bottom, water gets saltier the closer you get to the mouth of the estuary
  • Fjord – Deep, highly stratified water chemistry, fresh water flows out at surface, salt water flows in at depth, little mixing of fresh and salt water, anoxic conditions at depth

To learn more about each type of estuary go to: All about Estuaries and Types of Estuaries (animated)

Water Chemistry in Estuaries

Dissolved Oxygen, nutrients, and salinity are all highly variable in estuaries.  The variation of each of these is based on several factors such as: freshwater input, tidal ranges, depth reach of the estuary, pollution, run off, and sewage from human settlements.  Estuaries are often major sources of seafood for the surrounding communities, but they are also often the place where sewage and industrial waste is flushed.  Some of the worlds largest cities, sit unsurprisingly on some of the worlds most polluted and degraded estuaries.

Life in an Estuary

The combination of active mixing and nutrient input means that Estuaries can be more biologically productive than any other marine ecosystem.  As such they can also be home to a large variety of organisms.  Yet life in an estuary is no picnic. Large changes in salinity, in particular, mean that estuarian species have to be very adaptable.  Organisms like crabs, clams, mussels, and worms are particularly common.  (image from Wikipedia)

A rich array of habitats surround estuaries. The type of habitat is usually determined by the local geology and climate. Habitats associated with estuaries include salt marshes, mangrove forests, mud flats, tidal streams, rocky intertidal shores, reefs, and barrier beaches.

Salt marshes are daily flooded with saltwater by incoming tides.  They are dominated by salt tolerant grasses and halophytes.  The ground is primarily made of decomposing plant material and peat.  Salt marshes have extraordinary biological importance, particularly to migrating birds.

In the tropical and subtropical regions where the sea surface temperatures never fall below 16°C, mangrove forests may dominate estuaries.  Mangrove forests serve as nurseries to developing fish.  They stabilize soils, limit erosion, and protect coastlines during strong storms.

Where the shorelines of estuaries are protected from waves, clay and other fine particles can accumulate in expansive mudflats.  These areas may look lifeless, but they provide important habitat for many species of burrowing worms and bivalves.  They are important feeding areas for fish and seabirds.

The Economics of Estuaries

Estuaries, have historically provided the focal point around which coastal communities grew up. Most of the worlds largest cities have been build on estuaries. These early developing towns and cities took advantage of the food availability, effective waste disposal, and high quality of life that estuaries provided. Today, estuaries are a tremendous economic resource which provides jobs and resources to coastal communities. For example the blue crab to the right bring in a steady stream of income to thousands of people along Chesapeake Bay.  To learn more check out NOAA: Why estuaries are so important. Also consider the following:

  • Estuaries produce more food per acre than the most productive mid-western farmland;
  • 75% of commercial species depend upon estuaries for their primary habitat, spawning grounds, and nursery areas
  • 86% of recreational fishing trips occurred within 10 miles of the shoreline;
  • The tourism and recreational industry growth produced by the 180 million Americans who visit estuary and coastal waters each year (1993 figures);
  • In just 6 states, tourists spent over $105 billion during their 1994 visits; and
  • The consumer expenditures on seafood, which totaled $38 billion in 1993.
  • To read more go to:

The Roles of Estuaries in Ecological Systems

Estuaries do far more for our economy than supporting industries and providing jobs. Estuaries provide significant “ecological services” which directly benefit the surrounding communities. For example, estuaries protect landowners from flood waters, improve water quality by filtering runoff, and provide homes for plant an animal species. To learn more check out NOAA: Why estuaries are so important. Also consider the following:

  • Habitat: Tens of thousands of birds, mammals, fish, and other wildlife depend on estuaries.
  • Nursery:Many marine organisms, most commercially valuable fish species included, depend on estuaries at some point during their development from egg to adult.
  • Productivity: A healthy, untended estuary produces from four to ten times the weight of organic matter produced by a cultivated corn field of the same size.
  • Water Filtration: Water draining off the uplands carries a load of sediments and nutrients. As the water flows through salt marsh peat and the dense mesh of marsh grass blades, much of the sediment and nutrient load is filtered out. This filtration process creates cleaner and clearer water.
  • Flood Control: Porous, resilient salt marsh soils and grasses absorb flood waters and dissipate storm surges. Salt marsh dominated estuaries provide natural buffers between the land and the ocean. They protect upland organisms as well as billions of dollars of human real estate.

Estuary Destruction in the United States

Many of the worlds largest cities sit on estuaries.  They have historically represented close access to food and an easy means to dispose of waste.  Today these estuarial cities are centers of commerce and shipping.  Habitat in estuaries has been destroyed with little regard for its many economic values and quality-of-life benefits. In just the United States, more than half (roughly 55 million acres) of wetlands have been destroyed. Source:

  • Puget Sound – 73% of the original salt marshes have been destroyed;
  • Narragansett Bay – 70% of salt marshes are being cut off from full tidal flow and 50% have been filled;
  • San Francisco Bay – 95% of its original wetlands have been destroyed; only 300 of the original 6,000 miles of stream habitat in the Central Valley support spawning salmon;
  • Galveston Bay – 85% of seagrass meadows;
  • Louisiana estuaries – continue to lose 25,000 acres annually of coastal marshes, roughly the size of Washington, DC;
  • Hudson-Raritan Estuary – 75% of the original tidal marshes have been destroyed in both New York and New Jersey, and 99% of New York’s fresh wetlands are gone;
  • Chesapeake Bay – 90% of seagrass meadows were destroyed by 1990; in 30 years (1959-89), oyster harvest fell from 25 million pounds to 1 million;
  • Long Island Sound – More than 40% of the Sound’s tidal wetlands have been destroyed;
  • Gulf of Maine – Since 1975, developed land in the lower watershed has doubled;
  • North Carolina Estuaries – The state has lost more wetlands than any other state from 1973 to 1983; and
  • Tampa Bay – 80% of seagrass meadows destroyed.

Cook Inlet

Oil drilling platform in Lower Cook Inlet, the Alaska Range in the backdrop. Image from: AK Business Magazine

You and I live within a few miles of an estuary.  Cook Inlet is a tidal estuary that includes approximately 20,000 km2  of mudflats, rocky shoals and deep canyons. Several larger river systems, including the Susitna, Matanuska, Knik, Kasilof, and Kenai drain into Cook Inlet.  It’s watershed includes almost 100,000 square kilometers and most of the human population of Alaska.

Cook Inlet is big enough to contain several types of geological and salt water mixing features.  Parts of Cook Inlet are Coastal Plain, parts are formed by the dynamic plate tectonics of the area.  There are examples of tight glacier fjords and bar built estuaries.

Tidal Currents in Cook Inlet, click to animate, image from Marine Ecosystem Dynamics Modeling

Cook Inlet supports tremendous commercial and sport fisheries.  Tourism, oil and gas production, and shipping exist in a delicate balance with the native wildlife.  Many species thrive in this balance, while others have struggled.  The Cook Inlet Beluga whale was declared an endangered species in 2008, and may be facing extinction.  


Questions to Research:

  1. What is an estuary?  Write a description of an estuary in your own words?
  2. Describe four types of geological estuaries.  Based on those descriptions, what type of estuary is Cook Inlet?  What type of Estuary is Resurrection Bay (Seward)?
  3. Take a virtual field trip to the Providence River Estuary.  Click on the link for “water reading sensors” and create a graph using this spreadsheet to compare depth vs DO (dissolved oxygen), temperature, and salinity.
  4. Write a two sentence summary of your graph giving your best explanation of why these factors change with depth.
  5. Take a second virtual field trip, this time a site at South Prudence.  Click on the link for “water reading sensors” and create a graph using this spreadsheet to graph depth vs DO (dissolved oxygen), temperature, and salinity.
  6. Write a two sentence summary of your graph giving your best explanation of why these factors change with depth, and why this site differs from Pomham Rocks. (Hint: South Prudence is closer to the open ocean than the Providence River Site.)
  7. Explain two reasons why estuaries are so ecologically important and  economically important.
  8. Based on what you have learned about ecological role of estuaries explain why there has been a big push since Hurricane Katrina to re-build the estuaries and wetlands along the coast of Louisiana.
  9. In our coastal states, more than half (roughly 55 million acres) of wetlands have been destroyed. Because of the on going threats discussed above, restoration has been a priority. Explain what the National Estuarine Research Reserve System (NERRS) is and the goal of the Estuary Restoration Act (ERA).
  10. GAK1 is a sampling station at the mouth of Resurrection Bay.  It has been sampled for temperature and water chemistry each month since 1970.  Describe two observations that can be made about Resurrection Bay from this long term study. (see image below)
GAK 1 Anomalies

GAK 1 Anomalies, image from UAF